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New programs fortify the electronic office with a choice of graphics interfaces

TO BRING THE POWER of computer graphics to a broad range of office workers from the novice programmer to the management information systems (MIS) specialist Hewlett-Packard has developed a set of business graphics software packages for the HP 3000 Computer System. The new software products include DSG 3000. a decision support chartmaker with data file handling. HPEASYCHART. an interactive chartmaker designed for the nonprogrammer. HPDRAW, a figure design system that can be used with the HP 17S23A Graphics Tabiet far sophisticated data entry and digitizing, and the HP 2680A Graphics Package, which allows graphics to be printed on the HP 2680A Laser Printer at 45 pages per minute. The HP 268OA Graphics Package (see article, page 17 contains a set of programmatic intrinsics and an interactive interpreter so that graphics created with DSG 3000, HPEASYCHART, and HPDRAW can be converted to raster images and printed on the HP 2680A Laser Printer, Not all graphics devices have similar...

System Independent Graphics

One of the primary reasons computer graphics has not had wider application is that nearly all graphics applications differ, so each application requires special software specifically tailored to it. Furthermore, graphics has not been very popular among nontechnical users because even simple plotting has frequently required the user to write computer programs or learn to use programs written by others. The autoplot feature of the 2648A makes data plotting easy. It Data to be plotted may come from any source for example, an existing application program, output from a BASIC or other high-level-language program, keyboard data entries, data read from cartridge tape, an inquiry to a data base, and so on. Fig. 5a shows some typical tabular data. To obtain a plot of such data, the user must first provide some information characterizing the data. This allows the 2648A to select appropriate columns, automatically scale the data, and label the axes. This information about the data is obtained...

System Cs graphics architecture yields highspeed color picture generation with area shading

THE HUMAN MIND is an incredible visual processor. The simple act of recognizing a familiar face is one example of the associative processing capability available to all of us. Computer graphics is fast becoming a medium of visual communication between man and machine, allowing improved data interpretation, higher productivity, and complex problem solution. The addition of color greatly increases the amount of information that can be provided by a single picture. The proper use of color can aid in simplifying the interpretation of large amounts of complex data. Examples are visual representations of semiconductor die yield (Fig. 1a) and thermal gradients (Fig. lb). Time is a crucial variable in the generation of color computer graphics. All the advantages of visual communication may be lost if typical response times in picture generation are slow. To provide high-speed picture generation, the System 4SC graphics architecture (Fig, 2), uses a dedicated graphics controller, a 96K-byte...

Development of a Low Cost High Quality Graphics Plotter

A novel plotting technology and a design for low manufacturing cost have resulted in an inexpensive X-Y plotter capable of fast, high-resolution, graphics output. HEWLETT-PACKARD'S San Diego Division has been supplying high-quality graphics plotters to operate with IP computers and measurement systems since the development of the 9125A Plotter over a decade ago. During this time, several trends have developed. The plotter market is composed of several segments that are changing. Within computer graphics, the personal computer revolution is taking place. More and more low-cost personal computers are becoming available with capabilities previously reserved for much larger and more expensive systems. Examples of low-cost, high-performance HP personal computers are the HP-85, and more recently, the HP-87XM and HP-86. As computation prices come down, the need for low-cost, hard-copy graphics increases. At the same time, many measurement devices are becoming available that directly use...

An API for Interfacing Interactive D Applications to High Speed Graphics Hardware

The OpenGL9 specification defines a software interface that can be implemented on a wide range of graphics devices ranging from simple frame buffers to fully hardware-accelerated geometry processors. A senior engineer in the graphics products laboratory lit the IP Workstation Systems Division. Kevin Lefebvre is responsible for the OpenGL architecture and its implementation and delivery. He came to HP in 1986 from i he Apoilu Sysl ems Divisiott He has a US degree in mathematics (1976) from Caniogie-MeHooUniversity, lie was bora in Pitcslleki Massachusetts, is married and lias two children. His hobbies include running, biking, and skiing. John brown is a senior engineer in the graphics products laboratory of the Ht1 Workstation Systems Division. He is responsible for graphics application performance. John came 10 HP in 18B8. lie holds a BSEE degree (19ND) from the University o Kentucky. penGL is a specification for a software-to-hardware application programming interface, or API, that...

Highperformance graphics capabilities

Are made available at relatively low cost by Hewlett-Packard's new system oriented, generalpurpose, interactive graphics display terminal, Model 2648A Graphics Terminal (Fig. 1). Through its microprocessor-based architecture and raster scan technology, the 2648A Graphics Terminal provides a powerful combination of graphics and alphanumeric capabilities. By offering many off-line and system independent features, it helps take the burden off both the user and the host computer to make graphics applications more efficient and productive. The primary purpose of a graphics terminal is to help the user process and display graphical information. Since the display is the user's primary interface to the product, the quality of the display is particularly important. The 2648A uses the same high- The 2648A's keyboard is the same as that of other members of the 2640 family except that the numeric keypad of other 2640 terminals is replaced by a graphics control group that controls the graphics...

Graphics Display Architecture

The heart of the System 45 graphics display is a bit-per-element image memory implemented with 16K RAMs (Fig. 11). It is organized into 16,384 16-bit words. Each dot of the 560-dot-wide-by-455-dot-high graphics raster is represented by one of the memory bits. A graphics cursor is also provided and is independent of the image memory. Intensification of the cursor makes it easily distinguishable from the image. A TTL controller in the graphics hardware manages the cursor addresses and memory data sent by the mainframe via the I O bus. Vectors (straight lines) are the basic geometric elements of the graphics display. All images including Fig. 11. Graphics display block diagram. The image memory has one bit for each of the 560-dot-by-455-line display. It is implemented with 16K RAMs. Fig. 11. Graphics display block diagram. The image memory has one bit for each of the 560-dot-by-455-line display. It is implemented with 16K RAMs. curves are composed of vectors. Vectors are represented on...

An Impact Graphics Printer

A second version of the Model 2631A Printer was designed as a hard-copy output for the Models 2647A and 2648A Graphics Terminals.1 On ordinary paper, including multipart forms, this printer (Model 2631G) reproduces any raster display presented on the graphics terminals, printing a complete 720x360 dot display in 57 seconds or less. Although capable of printing graphics material, Model 2631G retains all the alphanumeric printing capability of the Model 2631 A. An escape sequence in the input data stream converts printer operation from alphanumerics to graphics and another escape sequence converts back to alphanumeric operation. In addition to graphics capabilities, Model 2631G has some other new capabilities. One is the ability to retain several character sets simultaneously and use them interchangeably. One of the new character sets is a high-density set for use where superior print quality is required. With this character set, the machine prints overlapping dots in the horizontal...

Precision Color Raster Scan Display for Graphics Applications

THE ADAGE a picture is worth a thousand words certainly applies to a graphics display. A properly designed and used graphics display can transfer many types of information from machine lo user much more rapidly and efficiently than can a verbal or numerical description. Such a display must have an information content greater than or equal to the amount of data to be transferred. provide sufficient display accuracy so that nothing is misinterpreted in the transfer, and be free from anomalies thai would tend to distract the user. The color display for the Hewlett-Packard System 45C was designed with these criteria in mind. Information content. The display area is 720 pixels wide by 455 pixels high (the area available for graphics display is 560 pixels wide by 455 pixels high). The information density in this area is greatly increased through the use of color. Three primary colors, red, green, and blue, are mixed to provide eight basic colors. lower cost. However, it does not provide the...

System Design for Compatibility of a High Performance Graphics Library and the X Window System

HP'S HIGH-PERFORMANCE 2D and 3D GRAPHICS library called Starbase has proven very successful in engineering workstation applications. Similarly, The X Window System 1,1 Version 11, or XII, has become the de facto industry standard window system far supporting user interfaces on workstations connected across a network.1 ' Both of these systems run in the HP-UX environment on the HP 9000 Series 300 and HOU Computer systems (see boxes on pages 7 and 8). Before the Starbase Xll Merge project, the X Window System and Starbase graphics applications were not able to run on the same display. An application could use either the Starbase high-performance graphics or it could run in the X Window System, but not both simultaneously. These systems each make simple assumptions about ownership of the display and input devices, and this makes them unable to coexist. Since HP is One of the industry leaders in the X Window System technology and Starbase is a widely used graphics library, I he Starbase...

Terminal Graphics Functions

PAINTBRUSH allows the user lo do some terminal functions while stiil in the application subsystem. This saves the user many keystrokes and avoids extra picture redraws that would be done on exiting and entering the application. Most of the graphics keypad fuctions are available. An added feature of the FULL VIEW key. SHIFT FULL VIEW, restores the virtual window to what it was when PAINTBRUSH was entered. This provides a quick return to the original picture after using I he ZOOM, PAN. FULL VIEW, or WINDOW keys.

System for Creating Graphics Presentations

The HP2700 Model 65 Preservation Graphics Workstation provides the user with an HP 2700.256K bytes of program memory. 224K bytes of vector memory, double-buffered graphics memory dua' flexible disc drr.es, a grapnics tablet the two applications software packages AUTOPLOT 2700 and PAINTBRUSH.2700, and the PRESENTATION'2700 utility package Graphics Presentation Software Since a graphics presentation system is used by non prog rammers it must be both friendly and interactive In PAINTBRUSH and AUTOPLOT. users invoke operations by selecting icon-like objects in a menu, instead of typing commands at the keyboard This allows users to rely on their recognition memory they are not required to memorize command names. To increase user confidence, instructional messages, quick system response, ana information data m the menu give the user immediate, reassuring feedback, and defaults are provided wherever possible. In addition. AUTOPLOT provides help messages tor explanations of all functions....

HP Graphics Input Devices

The two principal graphics input devices for the HP 2700 are the keyboard graphics input device, which consists of two thumbwheels and a'button. and the optional HP 13273T Data Tablet. The HP 13273T Data Tablet (Fig. 1) makes software applications such as PAINTBRUSH 2700 possible. Hallows the user to do freehand sketching and easily enter data Into the workstation without the keyboard. Operation of the data tablet Is similar to thai of the HP9111A Graphics Tablet ' However, the 13273T does not have all of its electronics within its case. Much of the tablet's interfacing electronics resides on a printed circuit board inside the HP 2700 card cage, and the tablet derives Its power from the HP 2700 power supply. Keyboard Graphics Input Device Many keyboard graphics Input devices were surveyed In designing the HP 2700 keyboard. Some OEM products were purchased for evaluation and some new ideas were designed and prototyped. Fig. 2. The HP 2700's keyboard graphics input device consists of...

Tablet Display Combination Supports Interactive Graphics

Interactive graphics systems nave special I O requirements that place a heavy burden on the computer To move a cursor on the CRT requires a number of very short messages belween the tablet and the display device. Even if the computer can devote tull time to this cursor tracking, an unacceptably low update rate can result due to the system overhead required to set up each data transfer To solve these problems, the 9111T was created The 9111T has all the capabilities of a standard 9111 A. plus firmware enhancements that allow direct HP-IB communication to a 1350A Graphics Translator The result is high-performance cursor movement and rubber-banding (stretching of lines) Cone by the peripherals that is totally independent of computer speed. In essence, the peripherals act in harmony as if they were a single graphics terminal. They also can be used independently with no physical reconfiguration of the bus In contrast, the 9111T has the capability of issuing commands to the 135QS Display...

Graphics Hardware Organization

The graphics controller module (GCM) is designed as a microprogrammed machine (see Fig. 6). Its architecture includes eight instruction types and 256 words of control store, 20 bits wide. The instruction types include four load, one store, one flag, one conditional jump, and one NOP instruction. The load instructions load the B hold register with either the contents of a B buffer location or a ROM constant, and load the A hold register with an A buffer location. This allows adding an A buffer location and a B buffer location, or an A buffer location and a ROM constant. The store instruction returns the result of the addition back to the specified location in the A buffer, or it can optionally load it into the address and or bit registers. The address and bit registers hold the image memory address during line display and vector generation. Fig. 7. Graphics display module (GDM) contains the image memory, which consists of sixteen 16K random-access memory (RAM) integrated circuits. The...

Instrumentation Graphics

The 1345A Digital Graphics Display is designed to meet (he display requirements of electronic measurement instruments such as oscilloscopes, spectrum analyzers, network analyzers, curve tracers, and waveform analyzers. The important aspects of any instrumentation graphics picture are resolution, brightness, the amount of data displayed, and the data update speed Other essential characteristics of an instrumentation graphics display module are a high-quality picture, flexible packaging for easy mounting and minimum space requirements, and low power consumption to minimize the host instruments cooling requirements and power supply load The 1345A has these features, along with an ASCII character generator for labeling and identification of softkey unctions, and the ability to generate different linetypes and different intensities to separate one waveform from another. The 1345A uses electrostatic deflection and the directed-beam format because it is intended as a low-power,...

A new vector plotter technology makes possible small inexpensive graphics products that provide highquality plots

As the initial design approached completion, we had the good fortune to be contacted by HP's Andover Division. They wanted to replace galvanometers, which consist of precision parts and skilled labor (both already expensive and increasing rapidly) with some form of inexpensive graphics. Their overall objective was an annotating alldigital electrocardiograph with superior graphic fidelity and quality. We quickly agreed (hat the initial design was not satisfactory in a hospital environment, and Steve Koerper at Andover made certain we understood how severe that environment could be if a mechanism could be knocked off its cert repeatedly, stepped on. have serum poured into its works, and still work after months of such abuse, it would be a serious candidate for their attention. Very high pen and paper accelerations would be helpful to reduce the time necessary to produce a record so the cardiologist would know quickly if a faulty electrode connection existed. Again, high graphic fidelity...

Color Enhances Computer Graphics System

The addition of a color CRT, extensive graphics control statements and faster vector generation to a desktop computer provides a comprehensive graphics system for the display and interpretation of complex data. SYSTEM 45C of Hewlett-Packard's 9800 Series of desktop computers, also known as Model 9845C, is a completely integrated color-graphics computer system It features a high-quality color display, a 9845T mainframe with dual tape transports, 187K-byte read.' write memory, and a high-speed thermal line printer. New extended BASIC-language statements in 48K bytes of ROM provide easy access to the graphics capabilities of the color CRT. User interaction is simplified through the use of a light pen to track a CRT cursor and to pick out and place objects on the display screen. User-defined soft keys (Fig, 1 are located on the display module below the CRT and their definitions can be dynamically displayed on the bottom portion of the CRT to help the user interact effectively with the...

Graphics Plotter Mechanical Design for Performance and Reliability at Low Cost

THE MECHANICAL DESIGN of a graphics plotter is a major factor in determining the plotter's cost, performance, and reliability. Although digital electronic techniques can replace the majority of mechanisms such as cams, springs, dashpots. and limit switches used in earlier plotters for control functions, paper handling and pen positioning must still be done mechanically. The plotting and pen handling mechanisms used in the 7470A Graphics Plotter are designed simply with a minimum of parts, yet provide reliable, high-quality output. Movement along each plotting axis is handled separately to reduce mechanical complexity. The pen carriage can select either of two pens stored in stalls located on opposite edges of the paper. Fig. 1. Exploded view of slider block assembly used to transport the pen along the Y-axis of the 7470A Graphics Plotter. Fig. 1. Exploded view of slider block assembly used to transport the pen along the Y-axis of the 7470A Graphics Plotter. Multicolor and multlpen...

Controlling a Graphics Plotter with a Handheld Programmable Calculator

THE ADVENT OF THE HP-fL (Hewlett-Packard Interface Loop)* transformed the HP-41C from a programmable calculator into a true computer system with mass memory, a variety of printers, and a video display. However, one capability still lacking was some form of graphics output. The HP 747DA Graphics Plotter with an HP-IL interface and the HP 82184A Plotter Module (Fig. 3) was developed to satisfy that need. As a computer, the HP-41C possesses a powerful and flexible instruction set, but is limited in speed and memory. While it is possible to connect and control a plotter using only the control functions built into the interface module, the resulting graphics programs would consume most of the available RAM and execution would be painfully slow. The 82184A Plotter Module was designed to free the user from these limitations. By providing a high-level set of graphic commands in external ROM, the HP-41C's system RAM is entirely available for the user's application programs. Further, all of the...

Lowcost Data Terminal Includes Color Graphics

A microprocessor-controlled, interactive data terminal with color graphics, reverse video, programmabte and resident character sets, selectable baud rates and data formats and a tight-touch, flexible-membrane keyboard with finger positioning overlay and aural feedback has The character display format. 40 characters by 24 lines or 20 characters by 12 lines, is software selectable. Each character or all characters may be displayed in one of eight colors (or gray scales on a B W display). The display background may be one of eight colors (or gray scales on a B W display). There are 125 resident displayable characters or you can define your own characters Greek letters and other foreign alphabets, graphic symbols, large graphics building blocks, playing card suits- unique character fonts, and little green men 1 The reverse video feature cre ates visual emphasis on single or multiple characters, words, or lines.

Low Cost Graphics Terminal

Southwest Technical GT-61 Graphics Terminal kit Es a low cost graphics unit designed for hobbyists or budget minded commercial applications, The x 13 PC board contains ail iht electronics necessary to display an jrray oi cells G4 wide by 96 high on a standard video monitor or modified television set. The graphics terminal contains its own 6144 bit sratic memory and thus mav be driven tay any computer system having a TTL compatible B bit parallel interface, fhe unit is available in kit form only and is Sold less power supply, chassis, and monitor for 98.50 postpaid in the US. Delivery is 30 days Southwest Technical Products Corporation, 219 W Rhapsody, San Antonio TX 7B216, (5121 344-0241.

Graphics Image Memory

The graphics image memory, whose functional block diagram also appears in Fig, 2, serves as the display buffer for the graphics image. Address locations are provided for a 512x512-pixel display space with four bits per pixel, (However, only 512 by 390 pixels are displayed on the HP 2700 CRT.) As an option, a second graphics image memory plug-in module may be added to the system to provide double-buffering capabilities and overlays. The organization of this hard ware module provides flexibility in reading and writing the raster image in the form of multiple addressing modes. The sequencing of row and column addresses is optimized to allow raster scanning to refresh the dynamic memory, thus allowing more bandwidth for vector plotting while the display is being refreshed.

Programming the Graphics Tablet

The firmware of the 9111A provides easy high-level programming For example, software tor the HP 9845B Computer has been written that allows the user to create drawings interactively using circles, rectangles, arcs, lines, and labels. The user can also pick, place, and transform elements and set up and interpret a user-defined menu. This software takes advantage of the following features of the 9111A Graphics Tablet, interrupts, softkeys, single and continuous mode digitizing, information received from the cursor statement, scaling, and variable beeper Software has also been written for the HP-85, 1350A, and System 45C and is underway for the HP-1000 The main driver for all the programs is set up on the basis of being able to interrupt the main program selectively. First, interrupts on ihe HP-IB SRQ line are enabled Then by simply sending the im (Inpul Mask) instruction to the 9111A Graphics Tablet, the programmer can specify the actions that will cause a service request. The...

Logic Design for a Graphics Subsystem

A MAJOR CONTRIBUTION of the HP 2700 to graphics users is its response time to draw and redraw complex pictures on the CRT. Under best-case conditions. redraws from the local vector list can approach a rate of 40,000 vectors per second. Fast response time is achieved by distributing raster graphics drawing tasks to hardware optimized for this purpose. The hardware pipeline that presents graphics information to the HP 2700 color monitor is shown in Fig. 1. This pipeline consists of three plug-in hardware modules known as the graphics controller, the graphics image memory, and the color mapper. An additional path from the graphics image memory to an external raster device such as a hardcopy camera or another display monitor is provided by a fourth optional plug-in module called the external video interface. Graphics Controller The graphics controller offloads vector drawing tasks from the system MPU, The MPU passes the (x.y) coordinates for the vector endpoints to the graphics...

High Quality Low Cost Graphics Tablet

It enables the user to interact easily with a computer graphics system to generate illustrations using predefined and user-defined shapes, point-to-point plotting, and continuous line drawing or tracing. THE HP 9111A GRAPHICS TABLET offers a new combination of features for the easy generation of computer graphics information. These features are contained in a low-cost human-engineered package Fig. 1) and include high-level HP-IB* programming, comprehensive self-tests, and built-in softkey menu. A graphics tablet is a peripheral device that provides a host computer with data corresponding to the position of a pen-like stylus relative to a surface, or platen. A pressure-activated switch in the stylus is the method used by the operator to inform the computer of a picked position. Normally, the position data Ls used to manipulate a cursor on a graphics display device. This mode of operation, with the user's hand on the platen and eyes on the display, might sound awkward at first, but...

Graphics

System 45's optional graphics capability conforms to an HP standard language for plotting and graphics. This language provides a common functional structure for a variety of HP plotting devices. In the System 45 graphics option, provision for control of a number of devices is made, including the CRT graphics option, the HP 9872A X-Y Plotter,2 incremental plotters, and graphics output on the internal thermal printer. graphics option provides a high degree of flexibility and device independence. For example, it is simple to generate identical plots on the CRT, on the internal thermal printer, and on a 9872A Plotter. The same commands control all devices, and a program that generates a plot on the CRT can create that same plot on the 9872A by changing a single statement, the plotter is command, to specify which plotting device is active. The internal thermal printer can be used to obtain rapid hard copy of an image present in the CRT graphics memory. This is a dot-for-dot dump , and...

Graphics Self Test

Self test is an important feature in all HP terminals. It is designed to answer the basic question, Does it work Self test also provides valuable diagnostic Information. Since the complexity of the new graphics hardware Is comparable to the entire digital portion of HP's first terminal, the 2640A, the addition of a comprehensive graphics self test was particularly important. The 2648A graphics self test consists of three tests. This is analogous to a marching 1's and marching 0's memory test. However, unlike a normal diagnostic, its operation can be viewed on the CRT in addition to being tested by the graphics controller. It verifies that the graphics vector generator operates in all four quadrants and that the graphics memory contains 259,200 uniquely addressable bits that can be set to a 1 or a 0. If any memory errors are discovered, they are reported on the display. The location of the failed memory pack Is also Indicated, allowing simple replacement of the socket-mounted part....

Graphics Glossary

The follDwing are some graphics terms that may be of help in reading parts of this article that discuss graphics Ftame Buffer. The video memory of a display device in which each element represents one picture element, or pixel. The frame buffer Is divided into two parts onscreen memory (current visible image and offscteen memory (graphics memory that Is never visible).

Graphics Features

The HP 2700 combines the benefits of vector graphics with raster graphics. The display of an HP 2700 is refreshed from a raster memory that has four memory bits for each screen color dot, or pixel. By contrast, a vector graphics display is refreshed from a display list of commands that direct an electron beam to move and draw lines on the display. Vector technology produces clean lines, but is usually monochromatic and limited in the number of lines that can be drawn before picture quality deteriorates because of flicker. However, the image on the screen can be changed quickly, simply by changing the display list. A major contribution of the HP 2700 is that, while it is a raster display, commands sent to the terminal to create graphic images are also retained in memory in a vector list. Just as with the vector display, these stored commands can then be manipulated by further commands to change the displayed image without retransmitting all of the original commands needed to create the...

Receive Terminal Unit

Quay Technologies has announced the QFAX-1 Weather Facsimile Receive Terminal Unit. QFAX-1 is a microprocessor-controlled intelligent interface unit designed to be connected between an SS8 receiver with LSB reception and a low cost computer graphics printer (such as Epson's FX-80 and compatibles). Operation has been made simple for the non-technicai person.

December Volume Number

Color Enhances Computer Graphics System, by John B. Frost and William L. Hale A desktop computer adds color and user-interaction features to its graphics capabilities. A Precision Color Raster-Scan Display for Graphics Applications, by Warren C. Pratt Display System Designed for Color Graphics, by Harold L Baeverstad, Jr, and Clark C. System 45 is Hewlett-Packard's most powerful desktop computer the top of the line. Born in 1977 as System 45A, it gives engineers and scientists a single compact unit that contains L all the elements needed to solve complex design and analytical problems. It has an inter- active keyboard, a large memory, a graphic display, two fast processors, a line printer, and dual magnetic tape drives. Standard computer peripherals such as disc drives and plotters can be added if their capabilities are needed. The latest version of this powerful computer. System 45C, adds color to the display and puts a light pen in the user's hand to make it easy to pick out and...

By Sharon Mead William R Taylor Kenneth A Mintz and Catherine M Potter

THE HP 2700 (Fig. 1) is a family of high-performance color graphics workstations offering local graphics design and output features that enable users to create professional presentation graphics and graphic art at a fraction of the cost of manual methods of design and preparation. The workstation's powerful features are accessible by a host computer so that it is possible to implement demanding graphics applications that do not require the computer to perform complex transformation calculations or transmit copious amounts of data to the workstation. The HP 2700 can also function as a block-mode computer terminal, making it a suitable display station for many general graphics applications. It has a high-quality color display, a keyboard with many specialized functions, a graphics input device consisting of a pair of thumbwheels and a button, and an optional graphics tablet.

Maincode Organization

The maincode firmware is organized into four major modules (see Fig. 3) I he alpha subsystem, the file subsystem, the I O subsystem, and the graphics subsystem. The alpha subsystem controls the alphanumeric personality of the terminal. It consists of the main loop, the escape sequence interpreter (E,S3), the alpha personality module, and lowr-level device routines. The main loop polls the terminal input devices (e.g keyboard, datacom, etc.) and dispatches the data to the ESI, the file subsystem, the graphics subsystem, or a datacom output port. The ESI collects characters within an escape sequence and dispatches the escape sequence to the file subsystem, graphics subsystem, or alpha personality module for execution. The ESI also dispatches characters that are not part of an escape sequence to the The graphics subsystem performs all of the graphics functions of the HP 2700, it manages the graphics viewports and performs the necessary object transformations invoked through the graphics...

External Video Interface

The external video interface EVIj permits video devices such as color display monitors and color graphics cameras to be connected to the HP 2700 Terminal. The EVI is a graphics-only interface alphanumeric characters are not displayed. In contrast with the noninterlaced Internal dis play of the HP 2700, the EVi generates an interlaced output suitable for lower-bandwidth devices. Because of its interlaced display, the EVI cannot simply tap the data stream going to the internal display and convert it to appropriate analog levels. It is an integral part of the graphics subsystem, and pixel data is accessed directly from graphics memory, contending with the graphics controller for memory cycles. A state machine arbitrates the competition for memory cycles, initiating an access to graphics memory when the EVI needs data for its display and the memory cycle is not being nsed bv ihe graphics controller for interna display refresh. Pixel data is buffered on the EVI in two FIFO (first in, first...

Circle On Reader Service Card

A complete stow scan iefevrsFon station tor your IBM PC or compatible Sen ct and teceive i mages in up to 10 shades ol gray depending upon your graphics card and printer. Mudes Har*i transceiver i C 'tn640K Far Port Graphics Card Tape Recorder Semal port Stow Scan formats 612.17.23 34.36 43 2 bee

Technical Information

Make the most of your PC's graphics Since J had just acquired an IBM clone and graphics display 1 decided to find a way to route printer output to the screen. The result is a basic program called SCREENFAX which runs on an IBM (or clone) with either u color graphics adapter (CGA) or extended graphics adapter (EGAl Since it's written using Microsoft QuickBasic II (or III), it isn't line-number dependent. (QB is a compiled basic and, because this program needs all of the speed the computer uan muster, it probably won't work very well going through an interpreter,) AEA wrote the FAX program with the EPSON graphics standard in mind. According to this standard, the printer prepares to receive a control command when it receives escape code CHR (27 , The next several characters command it to do a number of different things, such as enter compressed mode, double-strike, or graphics. AEA pro- grammcd the PK-232 to send the primer commands which initialize the graphics mode and vet the line...

Approaches to Solving the Problem

There are several approaches to solve the problem of rendering very complex 3D models with interactive performance. One approach is to increase the performance of the graphics hardware. Hewlett-Packard and other graphics hardware vendors are investing a lot of effort in this approach. However, increasing hardware performance alone is not sufficient because the complexity of many customers' problems is increasing faster than gains in hardware performance. A second approach that must also be explored involves using software algorithms to reduce the complexity of the 3D models thai air rendered. use of texture maps on a relatively small amount of geometry. However, lor an application responsible for producing or analyzing technical data, it is rarely effective to improve the rendering performance by manually altering and reducing the data set. If the data set is huge, the application must be able to make the best of it during 3D rendering. Unfortunately, the problem of exponential growth...

ContentsJanuary Volume Number

A High-Quality Low-Cost Graphics Tablet, by Donald J. Stavely The generation and modification of complex graphics images is greatly simplified by use of this instrument. Capacitive Stylus Design, by Susan M. Cardwell The stylus for the 9111A Graphics Tablet is slim, rugged, and provides tactile feedback. Programming the Graphics Tablet, by Debra S. Bartlett Software packages for several HP computers use the tablet's built-in capabilities to create diagrams, figures and charts Tablet Display Combination Supports Interactive Graphics, by David A. Kinsell A graphics tablet combined with vector-scan display system provides a powerful inexpensive graphics workstation. The article on page 15 describes another computer input device. Model 9111A Graphics Tablet. With this useful tool you can draw the computer a picture. For example, an engineer can draw circuit diagrams or mechanical structures and see them appear on a display or plotter as they are drawn. Compared to describing pictures to...

An Overview of the HP OpenGL Software Architecture

OpenGL is a hardware-independent specification of a 3D graphics programming interface. This specification has been implemented on many different vendors' platforms with different CPU types and graphics hardware, ranging from PC-based board solutions to high-performance workstations. .he OpenGL AP defines an interface (to graphics hardware) that deals entirety with rendering 3D primitives (for example, lines and polygons). The HP implementation of lite OpenGL standard does not provide a one-to-one mapping between API functions and hardware capabilities. Thus, the software component of the UP OpenGL product fills the gaps by mapping API functions to OpenGL-capable systems. Since OpenGL is an industry-standard graphics API. muc h of the differentiating value HP delivers is in performance, quality, reliability, arid time to market. The central goal of the 111' implementation is to ship more performance and quality much sooner. OpenGL differs from other graphics APIs, such as Starbase,...

Ready Made Interface

The new HP Model 1350A Graphics Translator, Fig. 1, represents a general solution to the interface problem. It accepts data supplied by way of the HP interface bus, stores the data, and repetitively generates the analog signals needed for tracing the specified vectors and characters (Fig. 2). All that is necessary to implement a display system with the new graphics translator is to connect its outputs to a directed-beam display and its input to an HP-IB interface for the system calculator or computer (Fig. 3). The display needs to have full-scale deflection factors of one volt and at least 2-MHz response on the X and Y axes and 10-MHz response on the Z axis. The system controller may already have an HP-IB interface since so many instrumentation systems are now being designed around the HP interface bus.* The principal advantage of using the new graphics The principal advantage of using the new graphics Fig. 1. The new Model 1350A Graphics Translator converts outputs from digital...

By Stanley A Balazer and John M Perry

AUTOPLOT 2700 is a powerful applications software package for the HP 2700 Color Graphics Workstation family. It provides an extremely friendly menu-driven interface for high-quaiitv decision support graphics such as pie charts, bar charts, line charts, log charts, and scattergrams. In addition, text slides can be designed in a totally interactive environment, AUTOPLOT 27DO uses the extensive features of the HP 2700. In addition to the menu-driven interface, there is an interactive interface which allows the user to point to a portion of a chart with the graphics cursor and then change its color, size, shading, font, or other attribute immediately. Whole charts can be moved, scaled, and combined with other charts and text to form a complete graph. Since all the chart types use the same data menu, the user can choose between pie, bar, and linear charts and see the results in a matter of seconds.

By Jeffrey P Baker David A Johnson Vyomesh Joshi and Stephen J Nigro

THE USE OF COLOR MONITORS in business and engineering applications of personal computers and engineering workstations is growing rapidly, Software application packages are available to create color text, graphics, and images on computer displays, often for the ultimate purpose of producing color hard-copy versions of the computer screens for various office and technical applications. The HP Paintjet Color Graphics Printer (Fig. 1 uses thermal inkjet technology to produce vivid color graphics for overhead transparencies and reports. Intended for personal computer applications, it produces text and graphics with 180-dots-per-inch resolution and near-letter-quality NLQ text at a speed of 167 characters per second. It can produce a typical page of text in about 35 seconds, merge text and graphics (see Fig, 2), and print a full page of color graphics in about four minutes (Fig. 3).

By James C Smith David C Tribolet Hatem E Mostafa and Emil Maghakian

AT THE BEGINNING of the HP PaintJet printer project, an assessment was made of our technological capability, our customers' needs, and what our competitors were doing, At that time, the HP San Diego Division's product line and expertise revolved around vector pen plotters. Vector plotters, in general, produce superior-quality line graphics, so they are ideal for high-quality line charts, pie charts, bar charts, text charts, and presentation graphics. On the other hand, vector plotters are less than ideal for text and images. Plot time is roughly proportional to the number of vectors, so plots containing a large number of vectors take a long time to produce. Raster printers are more versatile than vector machines. They are able to produce text, images, and graphics. The perceived quality of raster output is very much dependent on the resolution (Fig. 1). Output time with raster devices increases with resolution simply because more dots are placed on the writing media at higher...

Direct Model Capabilities

DirectModel is a toolkit for creating technical 3D graphics applications. The engineer or scientist who must create. Visualize, and analyze massive amounts of 3D data does not interact directly with DirectModel. DirectModel provides high-level 3D model management of large 3D geometry models containing millions of polygons. Il uses advanced geometry simplification and culling algorit hms to support interactive rendering. Figure 1 shows that DirectModel is Implemented on top of traditional 3D graphics APIs such as Slarbase or OpenGL It extends, but does not replace, I he current software and hardware 3D rendering pipeline. As discussed above, the underlying dat a is often the most important it em to the user of a technical application. For example, when designers select parts on the screen and ask for dimensions, they want to know the precise engineering dimension, not some inexact dimension that results when the data is passed through the graphics system for rendering. DirectModel...

Pr Line Printer

Now you can add graphics displays to your game programs and on any type computer. Our GT-6144 operates from any eight bit parallel I O port. It has it s own self contained memory, so memory space for the display is not robbed from your computer. The 9 x 13 circuit board contains all you need to produce a graphic display like the one of the starship Enterprise shown on the left. Kit is less power supply, or chassis. GT 6144 GRAPHICS TERMINAL KIT . S 98.50 PPd GT-6144 Graphics Terminal 98.50 Q Just data free)

Pre Programmed Subroutines

To simplify the programming of the graphics translator, a number of graphics utility subroutines for use with several different host computers have been prepared. The graphics command statements in the higher-level languages used with these programs were selected to be easy to understand and, if possible, to be already familiar to the user. For example, one of these routines, the 10184A Softcopy Graphics Library designed to run on the Model 9825A Desktop Computer, supports the Models 9862A and 9872A Plotters as well as the graphics translator. This routine has graphics command statements and parameter meanings for the translator that for the most part are identical to the plotter command statements. Hence, the user does not have to learn the graphics translator machine language (GTML). The hdcpy statement in this subroutine indicates to the desktop computer that the data is to be sent to the plotter for a hard-copy output. Whenever the user gives a graphics command statement, the...

Dierschow and Robert P Uhlrich The serial data communications interface handles many asynchronous protocols and drives

LuLitaHHZl The HP desktop computer on the cover of this issue is showing you its engineering graphics capability by displaying a diagram of a system that its owner might be designing, or that it might be controlling. The computer. Model 9836A. and its smaller-screen, single-flexible-disc-drive cousin, Model 9826A, are the subjects of this issue. These two new desktop computers are state-of-the-art descendants of the HP 9825 Computer Controller, which has S-S been HP's top system controller since 1976. Over 28.000 customers now own 9825s.

Collecting Preliminary Specifications

Before attempting to construct an OSA system model, it is important to collect or generale a preliminary list of specifications. These specifications are gathered from discussions and interviews with users and managers of the system under study. The preliminary specifications are rather informal and are usually documented with natural language text and hand-drawn graphics. These specifications should answer most of the following questions that may be posed by the analysis team

By Robert R Burns and Dale A Luck

A MAJOR CHALLENGE in the development of the HP 2700 Color Graphics Workstation xvas to provide the new and enhanced graphics features that earn (he HP 2700 its appellation high-performance while maintaining compatibility with other HP graphics terminals. All HP terminals, including the HP 2700. receive graphics commands from a host computer via escape sequences. These commands and the HP 2700's default conditions are designed to allow a hosl application written for other members of HP's graphics terminal family to run on the HP 2700 with little or no modification. Like all of HP's graphics terminals, the HP 2700 uses raster technology. The display is composed of 199,680 picture elements, called pixels, arranged in a rectangular matrix 512 pixels wide and 390 pixels high. The col or memory associated with each pixel is four bits deep, and thus contains one of 16 values. On HP's black and white terminals, pixels are only one bit deep, and represent either black or white, depending on...

Terminal Architecture

Fig. 6 shows a system block diagram of the 2648A, which is based on the proven 2640A family architecture.2,3,4 Three plug-in boards contain the hardware and firmware required to implement the new features of the 2648A (see articles, pages 6 and 12). Unlike most other graphics terminals the 2648A uses raster scan technology, and many of its unique features are a direct result of the application of this technology to graphics. Until recently, nearly all graphics terminals have used some form of directed beam technology, tracing out pictures on the face of a CRT in much the same way as one would with a pencil and paper. This approach yields good line quality but generally requires either a very high-speed (and expensive) vector generator, or an expensive storage tube, or both. If the display is refreshed, the amount of information that can be displayed without flicker is limited. If a storage tube is used, flicker is no longer a problem, but the entire screen must be erased to delete any...

Traditionally all text documents have

Been prepared on printers and all graphics hard copy prepared on plotters. To understand why, consider that it would take 10 minutes for an HP 7221 Plotter running at full speed to plot the text of this paragraph. Plotters are designed to generate vectors (straight line segments). The HP 26s0a Laser Printer, by contrast, is a raster image device similar in some ways to a black and white television CRT screen. a page of printer output is composed of small circular black dots analogous to the picture elements (pixels) on a CRT. There are 180 of these dots per inch in both the horizontal and vertical directions. Patterns of dots are grouped together into rectangular cells that form characters. a set of these characters is downloaded into the printer's memory and used to generate the text of the printed image on the page. To print a graphics figure the HP 2680a must be given a set of cells that collectively form the desired figure. This technique is fundamentally different from the vector...

Convenient Creation and Manipulation of Presentation Aids

THE USE OF COMPUTERS to assist in the production of visuai aids has increased significantly in recent years. As a result, graphics users have begun to develop specialized needs that extend beyond simple tasks such as adding an arrow to a chart or modifying an annotation. They want products that can create customized drawings and simplify graphical data manipulations. HPDRAW and the HP 3000 Computer System fulfil those needs. HPDRAW is a highly interactive graphics design system that allows data to be entered through direct graphics or menu interfaces. The editing and manipulation of freehand drawings, symbols, and signatures is accomplished by point and push operations using a graphics cursor instead of the typical coordinate point designation method. When HPDRAW is used in conjunction with the HP 17623A Graphics Tablet, figures can be created by moving a stylus across the tablet. Signatures can be digitized and entered into letters and documents. Figures generated with HPDRAW can be...

Laresco Code Software

LARESCO has introduced Morse The Code Machine for the Appie ll+ c e. The program has 31 modes, including frequency selection, special signals send mode, extended sound spacing, and more. The 32-page manual supplied with the program contains lesson plans and methods for learning and enhancing code skills. Also included are graphics, a word processor, and speed ranges from 1-100 wpm. Six versions of this program are available, ranging in price from 29.95 to 89.95. For detailed Information, please check Reader Service number 214.

Concurrent Engineering in OpenGL Product Development

A senior engineer in the graphics products laboratory at the HP Workstation Systems Division, Robert Casey was the chief software architect for tire OpenGL product. Current ly, lie leads the efforts on Direct 3D1' technology in the graphics products krburatury. He came to HP m 1887 after receiving a BS degree in computer engineering from Ohio State I niversity. He was bom in Columbus, Ohio, is married and has two children. His outside interests Include skiing, soccer, and woodworking. Leonard Lindstone is a projei'l manager at the IIP Workstation Systems Division. He is responsible for soft ware driers for new graphics hardware. He joined HI' in 1U76 lit the Calculator Products Division after earning a RSEE degree from the University of Colorado. He also has an MS degree in computer science from Colorado State ('ruversity. Leonard is married and has ihree children. He enjoys music of all kinds and historical fiction.

Decision Support Chartmaker

TRENDS ARE SPOTTED more easily on a chart than in a table of values. A large table of sales data for the past three years would be tedious to read, but a chart of the data might quickly show that sales at the beginning of each quarter are higher than at other times. With Decision Support Graphics 3000 (DSG 3000J. data stored in any data file, including a file taken from a data base, can be charted to convey the stored information visually. DSG 3000 is a comprehensive business graphics software package that produces bar, line, and pie charts, and slides. It is one of a family of graphics packages designed for the HP 3000 Computer System. low-level plotting and device control are handled through the graphics utility routines (see article, page 3). Selecl graphics device and characteristics, press next menu Chooses graphics device Terminates graphics session. Last year HP released several new office products including graphics, word processing, and personal data base systems. Two...

Hard Copy and Other Output

Not only can a host describe a picture to the HP 2700, but also the HP 2700 can describe its current picture file, in escape sequence form, to a host. Thus, for the first time in an HP graphics terminal, locally generated graphics, perhaps as the result of a PAINTBRUSH 2700 or AUTOPLGT 2700 session, can be described to another device in vector form. This capability opens up new opportunities for local-versus-host partitions of graphics work.

Bird Electronic Corporation

Decoding System includes an external audio interface, an internal acquisition and control card, enhanced VGA + graphics card, software, and manual, for 3495. The EGA version, without the mouse-driven image analysis tools, and excluding an EGA graphics board, is 1895. Required are an IBM PC XT AT or compatible, a matching graphics monitor, and an appropriate audio front-end (antenna receiver) for the mode(s) of interest,

By William D Eads and Jack M Walden

System 45, which is also known as Model 9845A (Fig. 1), has the most powerful central processor and the largest built-in mass storage system ever offered in a desktop computer. It also features a 12-inch CRT display, BASIC interpretive language conforming to the latest ANSI standard, extensive applications software, and an optional graphics package with high-speed hard-copy output.

New Printing Mechanism

Model 2631A Printer is designed for either table-top or pedestal mounting. Microprocessor control of the dot-matrix printing operation contributes to the printer's versatility while simplifying the printing mechanism. A high throughput rate is obtained with a print speed of 180 characters per second plus the ability to print in either direction and to slew past strings of blank spaces. Model 2631G, which can a so print raster-style graphics, is identical in appearance.

Measurement and Simulation

Visual appearance of the graphics output showrs how well the media drive advances paper, but to analyze and improve the system, a measurement technique was developed using a 50,800-count encoder coupled to the drive roller. Measurement accuracy of 1 100 degree is possible. How much step accuracy is required Simulation of various inaccuracies involving the frequency and magnitude of each error was done by a combination of modeling and measurement. With the encoder mounted to the drive roller, the angular position of the roller could be measured very accurately. With the appropriate high-resolution input we could rotate the drive roller to any desired position, perfect or not, A step motor with a 1000-to-l gear ratio was set in motion to drive the roller. When the right position was reached the step motor was turned off and a graphics swath was printed. Although slow. 10 to 12 hours per page, the process produced a well-defined typical graphics output that could be evaluated by a panel...

An Easyto Use Chartmaker

HPEASYCHART is an interactive chartmaker designed to he used with (he HP 3000 family of computers. HPEASYCHART is a simplified alternative to the more sophisticated DSG 3000 business graphics package (see article, page 5J. It allows 11011 programmers to create visually pleasing charts without understanding all of the details behind design decisions or file control. HPEASYCHART began as an experimental prototype designed to put graphics capabilities at the fingertips of a variety of office W'orkers. The prototype became such a popular internal tool that a decision was made to expand the program and offer it as a product. To appeal to the nontechnical user in particular, the typical menu-driven interface was modified by adding features thai make certain defauil design decisions so a user can produce handsome charts by responding to just a few simplified menus. of chart types or specifications. HPEASYCHART eliminates this prohlem by displaying icons (pictures) on its main menu to provide...

Functions of Paintbrush

PAINTBRUSH provides a complete set of graphics functions. These graphics functions can be divided into the four categories of picture creation, picture editing, terminal graphics functions, and input output. Fig, 1. Each ot PAINTBRUSH-2700s levels displays up to sixteen soltkey labels, a menu, and a graphics workspace area Two drawing levels support aided or free drawing.

Development System for the Microcontroller

My Grandpa always told me to use the right tool for the job. Grandpa was talking about woodworking tools but the same rule applies to computers. Let me put this in perspective when we say the word computer, most envision glittering, lightning-fast systems with gigabyte hard drives, CD-ROMs and highresolution graphics. Now think about using this same, expensive, high-tech, electronic masterpiece to control the temperature of your coffee pot. Not on your life.

The Help Developers

The CDE 1.0 developer's kit includes a complete system for developing online help for any OSF Motif-baaed application. It allows authors to write online help that includes rich graphics and text formatting, hyperlinks, and communication with the application. It provides a programmer's toolkit that allows developers to integrate this rich online help information with their client applications. The help dialog widget seives as the main display window for the CDE 1.0 help system. A second. lighter-weight help widget, called quirk help dialog, is also available from (be toolkit. Following is the list of components supported within the toolkit A richer message formatting capability is provided. (While HelpTag does not allow tables, other documents that do allow rabies can be translated into the public distribution format and displayed. Also, the table of contents now allows graphics in the titles.) Another change is thai the table of contents now displays graphics. Before, the table of...

Print Quality Testing

Samples were collected for three major application segments word processing, merged text and graphics, and presentations. The word processing sample was generated in black only to evaluate text quality, while merged text and graphics and presentation samples were printed in full color. For each sample some specific print quality attribute was tested to determine the design center and associated tolerances on the basis of the acceptability of the print quality for that application. The survey also included samples generated on other similar products on the market.

High Resolution CRT Display

For graphics applications this raster was not ideal. In the graphics mode, the important requirements were to maximize the resolution in both dimensions, to be able to dump the plots directly on the internal printer (560 dots per line resolution), to stay within 16K words of refresh memory, and to maintain the same character quality as in the alphanumeric mode. A raster of 560 dots by 455 scans (Fig. 6) was chosen. Development of a horizontal sweep circuit that could produce a linear display at two sweep frequencies, 23.4 kHz and 28.7 kHz, was essential to the dual raster scan concept. Most horizontal sweep circuits correct for nonlinearities with passive components. The horizontal sweep circuit in the System 45 display uses active linearity correction. Active linearity correction allows the use of two different horizontal frequencies for the alphanumeric and graphics rasters because the correction is frequency independent. Fig. 6. Dual raster scan circuitry was developed for the CRT...

Development of AA HPL

Another important hardware feature available on the 9B26A and 9836A is CRT graphics. The HPL system has been extended so that plotter commands that on the 9825 were always directed to an external plotter can now be directed to the graphics screen. Some new statements necessary for CRT graphics were also implemented.

The Basics of Window Systems

A window system is a low-level set of interactive graphics primitives that provide an application with efficient means to create, manipulate, and destroy communication regions or windows on the user's display.1 The application uses the primitives to send simple graphics or multifont text in color or black and white to the window. The basic unit out of which the window system builds both text and graphics is the pixel, which is the smallest directly accessible graphical element of the display, usually a very small squarish dot, On a monochrome display the pixel's value can be represented by a single bit. On a color display, the pixel contains an integer color value consisting of multiple bits, depending on the color depth of the display. For high performance, the pixels are typically accessed by memory mapped i O techniques. Displays of this type are generally referred to as bit-mapped displays.

Newsletter Of The Month

At least not in the winner ol this month & newsletter contest, The RaRa Rag. published by the Rochester Amateur Radio Association, The Ihoroughly professional look of The Rag includes typeset and printed te*t, with even margins on both sides, headlines, cutofl lines, and clean graphics. It is an printed in booklet format on hea*y paper

Firmware Software Objectives

System 45's programming language is an extension of the new standard BASIC defined by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Statements such as let, input, and gosub are a part of this standard. Enhancements to this language have been made in the areas of program documentation, string and matrix operations, subprograms, program linking, tracing, formatted output, mass storage files, and graphics.

Systems Tailored to the User

IDSFORM's users are both application programmers and industrial designers. Many features of the program provide a link between these two groups of users. For example, often forms must be designed according to the constraints of the application program, in a print-and-space form, data can only be printed at discrete line and character locations. Therefore. IDSFORM optionally displays a grid indicating those discrete local ions, allowing the form designer to align graphics more easily with printed data.

Implementing HP Applications Software

Applications on the HP2700 Color Graphics Workstation run on the same processor as the terminal main code. Therefore, the application exists in a tightly Integrated environment. The application environment has three different models. The first modellnvolves a single call to the application The application then runs to completion and gives control back to the workstation. In the second model the workstation, acting as the main program, calls application subroutines when receiving user input. AUTO PLOT 2 700 uses this application environment. The third model Is structured so that the application polls the workstation for input. The workstation calls subroutines in the application for the specified Input For example, Input could come from the thumbwheels. the graphics keypad, or the softkeys. This Ihlrd model is the application environment used by PAINTBRUSH 2700. There are five different Pascal procedure calls to the graphics Intrinsios. They allow for integer, real, or string (long and...

Alphanumeric Features

In addition to all of its graphics features, the HP 2700 is a complete alphanumeric terminal compatible with the HP 2622A Data Entry Terminal. Applications that depend on block mode and format mode, such as VPLUS 3000, will run unchanged on the IIP 2700. There are new display enhancements that allow applications to make use of color in alphanumeric applications as well. The use of color on a menu or form allows the reader to discern much more information than is possible with a monochromatic display.

Newsletter Contest Winner

Even if we could resolve the problem of different sizes, there is the problem of production quality and appearance. The Chicago Auiopatch Repeater Organization Limited uses eyecatching graphics in their newsletter white the Minute-man Repeater Association publication employs a shck-look* ing magazine format. In establishing a set of criteria for choosing a winner In the first month of the newsletter contest, the judges made circulation, style, and iooks secondary considerations. What we were looking for was the best source of information.

Graphical User Interface for a Multimedia Environment

1 was inevitable Thai once the multitasking, multiuser, and nefwork capabilities of the UNIX* operating system were connected with the power of graphics workstations that the next step would be to civilize the UNIX command line interface with a graphical user interface (GUI), Graphical user interfaces are literally changing the face of UNIX systems, and in doing so, are helping to spread U NIX systems and workstations from their historical installed base among technical users into the broader markets offered by commercial computing.

Video Support in a Multimedia Environment

As computer technology and television technology converge, the result is the power and impact of video with the control and interactive capability of computers. This is where the advantages of video capability on workstations become apparent. By combining text, graphics, audio, and video into an interactive presentation, the user can quickly and efficiently gather information on demand with a high rate of retention. This is invaluable for on-the-job training where an employee may need to leant (orrelearn) a very specific task very quickly, As an example, take an automobile assembler who may work on engine assembly for a few months and then work on front-end assembly for a few-months, suit so on. This is a sit nation in which interactive video and workstation capabilities can be combined with a computer-based training course to provide some quick and inexpensive training as the assembler moves from one type of assembly station to another. pixel on the monitor would be white, and if the...

An Overview of CBT Components

While these agent tasks are sufficient for some training, they are not optimal for large-scale, highly visual CBT. They require programming expertise to construct, and because of their size when used for CBT, are expensive in terms of development time and memory use. To construct superior training, we needed additional visual effects, fullscreen graphics, the ability to simulate applications that didn't lend themselves to concurrent training, a more detailed knowledge of what the student was doing to the system, and a clean and easy method for starting and controlling a sequence of lessons. This required that the generic agent task language be supplemented by Extensions to the generic agent task automation language that perform training-specific actions such as mouse position sensing and user input simulation. A CBT display object (with integral development editor), which displays the sequences of instruction windows, text, static graphics, and user controls that make up the student's...

Simple Charts and Transparencies

The text slide system is optimized for making simple text transparencies easily. Therefore, the flexibility of the text options is limited. The high-speed graphics of the HP 2700 are used to allow dragging text and pointing at a text feature display to modify text instantly. The text chart is displayed at all times just as it will appear on hard copy. When the text slide and labels picture is chosen on the chart type display, the display shown in Fig. 4 appears. It includes a workspace for the slide, text feature choices, and softkeys. To create text, the thumbwheels are used to place the graphics cursor where the text is to be positioned, and the text is entered through the keyboard. As it is typed, it appears on the display. The text can be dragged and features chosen by pointing at the display on the right side of the screen with the cursor. Lines can be deleted and inserted. Groups of text can be moved and text features modified by using the GROUP MODIFY softkey. A box is placed...

Programmable IO Assures System Compatibility

The 7221A Remote Terminal Plotter is designed to provide hard-copy graphics to a user at a remote terminal, with the plotter connected between the terminal and the data communications link. A primary design goal was to make the plotter compatible with a wide variety of system and terminal conventions. Because of significant differences between protocols, several key features of the plotter's input output system were made programmable. Dashed lines are often used in graphics to differentiate one type of curve from another or to signify A user's application sometimes includes a large number of commonly used graphic features such as dashed line fonts, hole patterns, or other special purpose graphic symbols. In this case, it may be advantageous to have optional plug-in ROMs programmed with macroinstructions that create these features. The 7221A is designed to accept macroinstructions that are permanently stored in an optional plug-in module. This allows the use of special graphics custom...

Single File System View

There are two basic computing environment models time-shared systems and distributed systems. Time-shared systems allow multiple users to communicate with each other easily, and to share a single computer's environment and resources. The disadvantages of a time-shared system are poor response time, limited configuration and scalability, limited graphics capability, and limited system availability. Distributed systems alleviate many of the disadvantages of time-shared systems by distributing the computing and other resources onto networked full graphics workstations that are smaller and less expensive. However, sharing resources and communicating between users on separate workstations is usually more complex in a distributed system. For the HP-UX 6,0 system we wanted the best of both models a high degree of network transparency between workstations and a single-system view. A single-system view also means shielding the user from differences in the workstations in the cluster, in a...

Basics of HP Domain Analysis

There are no common rules about what makes a set of capabilities Ihe right size and complexity to be called a domain If the domain of l ocus represents a consistent set of capabilities in a larger context (for example, in the context of a product, portfolio), the most useful scope for such a domain is one in which there is a high degree of cohesiveness among the capabilities within the domain, and a limited coupling to other domains with which the domain of focus might be com blued to produce products. For example, a domain like a graphics editor has significant complexity within it. However in a larger context like document publishing, the graphics editor might have connections to other domains like text editing and document printing, which have a well-defined and comparatively simple interface.

Track Sarex With Amsat S Easy Tracking

Observe a single satellite in realtime or select multiple satellites and set priorities among them. You can track satellites from over 100 different cities and the satellite ground track and foot print is graphically depicted on a wortd map using either CGA or EGA graphics. Hardware requirements IBM PC, AT, PS2 or clone with at least 512k memory. EGA or VGA graphics required. Numeric coprocessor not required but recommended. Mouse not required but can be used on the map screens.

Organization of the A

The basic concept of Model 8501A is similar to that of the 8750A but the 8501A has additional blocks for display annotation and the HP-IB interface. Also, because of the need to process a variety of display formats, including polar data, the full graphics capability was implemented.

Insekt Revise Delete Find Replace

The technology that allows us to consider the true possibility of such a system is based heavily upon the VLSI extensions that the system intends to support, For example, by reducing major equipment such as a sophisticated logic state analyzer to a one or two-card module allows zoom potential, because several different modules can be resident in the card cage of a work station. Also, a cluster network can be composed of different configurations in each work station, and potentially could even include a desktop computer for information graphics or management information systems. A significant problem in terms of computer power IC cell layout and lead routing, or PC board layouts could be routed to a major computer network from the cluster as well.

By David L Smith and Masahiko Muranami

THE HP 82240A INFRARED PRINTER Fig. 1) is a portable battery-powered thermal printer capable of printing a maximum of 24 columns of alphanumeric characters or 166 columns of continuous graphics per line. Designed for use with an HP-18C or HP-28C handheld calculator.1,2 the information to be printed is transmitted to the printer by the calculator using an infrared beam. This transmission method is discussed in detail in the article on page 16.

Keyboard Datacom Controller

The keyboard also contains a graphics input device, which consists of two spinning thumbwheels for X-Y coordinates and a pushbutton switch. The KBDC code converts the thumbwheel motion into X-Y translation data for the MPU, The sensitivity of the thumbwheels is a configuration option of the KBDC,

Categories of Agent Like Products

The third category is the intelligent processors. These have knowledge about the products they operate on. For example, a product may provide a natural language interface for user interaction with an application such as a data base. Within the third category there is integrated intelligence within applications and there is integrated intelligence across applications. For example, the same intelligence maybe applied to a data base and a graphics package.

Providing HPUX Kernel Functionality on a New Parisc Architecture

Each team worked syst.emwide, with individual developers focusing on a facet of the system. The performance team, with members from hardware, kernel, languages, graphics, and performance measurement groups, focused on the overall goal of maximizing system performance in computation. graphics and I O. The value added business fVAB) leant focused on delivering high-quality prototype hardware and software to key VAB partners, allowing their software applications lo release simultaneously wiilt the IIP 9000 Model 720. There was also an integration team, a release leant, and a quality and testing team.

By Kenneth A Fox Marc P Pasturel and Peter S Showman

Depending upon his application, the user may include an interactive graphics option, which provides graphic and alphanumeric output on a CRT display. A feature of this option is a trackball-controlled cursor which simplifies control of the system. In most cases the interactive graphic display is the best solution to the problem of extracting the useful information from the large amount of data the system produces. Included in the interactive graphics option is an interface to a commercially available printer plotter. The printer plotter can produce a permanent record of anything displayed on the CRT. Graphics software package. Compact graphic calls make graphs and interaction simple to program * Graphics hardcopy provides best With the graphics option the programmer can maintain the latest program listing on the screen at all times. Hardcopy of program listings or output can be obtained at the push of a button. Programming Graphics in BASIC The 600-word display buffer is divided into...

Geometry Software Architecture

Creation of geometry is called ACT_GEO. For each type of simple geometric element, a specific action routine in ACT_ GEO lets the user create elements of this type in various ways. To create a circle tangential to three other circles, the c_circle routine in ACT_GEO calls a specific routine in CMPNT.CIR. This routine in turn calls a routine in SOLVE to calculate the center and the radius of the tangential circle. If a solution is obtained, another routine in CMPNT CIR checks the solution, and if the check is positive, calls a routine in MODEL_DS to create a circle clement and then calls a routine in DRAW to draw the circle onto the graphics area. Besides ACT. GEO, the software modules in ME Series 5 10 are geometric problems ME Series 5 10 can handle. MIN_DIST contains routines that calculate the distance and the projections from points to elements. These routines are used by CMPNT ANY and MODEL_ACC to identify elements by a pick in the graphics area. MAP_GEO contains the calculus to...

ROM and RAM Expansion

The original design assumed code (ROM) requirements of 8K bytes, and 8K of RAM beyond what was internal to the 8032. It was decided that performance could be increased by having an 8K I O buffer in addition to the 8K swath buffer. Particularly for full-page graphics, adding this buffer could dramatically increase throughput. This RAM is also used for implementing downloadable characters, which was not on the original feature iist.

Font and Label Implementation

A graphics label token in the vector list consists of the token code, the number of characters in the label, and a pointer to a block containing the information needed to display the label. This block consists of a header describing the label attributes and transformation, followed by the ASCII characters in the label. Fonts are described independently of the labels that reference them. There is a system table containing the addresses of each of the IB character fonts. Also included in this table are flags indicating whether the font is a ROM-based system font or a user-defined font, and if the font has been redefined since it was last used. The first flag protects system fonts from redefinition and deletion and the second is used during label output, which is described below. The system table for a font is nil (zero address) if the font is undefined, and points to a 95-entry table of 32-bit character-definition offsets if the font is defined. There are 95 graphic characters.) These...

Vector List Implementation

Each vector list consists of three parts. The first is the vector list header. It contains all of the primitive values that were set at the time the first primitive was stored. This includes items such as initial pen position, pen color, drawing modes, text slant, etc. Thus vector lists do not change values depending upon their order of drawing the header block sets up an initial environment for a vector list draw that is identical to the environment in which the list was initially created. The second part of the vector list is the list itself, a serial stream of primitive graphics instructions. It is broken up into blocks that are easily managed, about 2K bytes per block. There are primitives that tell the vector list parser to jump to the next primitive block or to stop parsing. The third part of the vector list consists of lext blocks. These are separated from the vector list to make text editing easier and independent of the other primitive attributes.

By Lori A Cook Steven P Hiebert and Michael ft Wilson

The CDE 1.0 help system originated with IIP VUE. An early version, HP VUE help 2.0, satisfied few of the requirements of a modern help system. VUEhelp 2.0 did not allow rich text and graphics, was har d to integrate into an application, lacked authoring tools, and suffered from poor performance. The IIP VUE 3.0 help system delivered a complete solution for creating, integrating, and shipping rich online information with an OSF Motif-based application, while keeping its presence (use of system resources) to a minimum. HP VUE 3,0 walked a very fine line between providing the rich set of features t hal customers required while maintaining performance. In 95 of the cases where features and performance came into conflict, performance won. The HP VUE 3.0 help system was submitted to the CDE 1.0 partners lor consideration. It was the only existing, unencumbered, rich text help system put forward for consideration. After an evaluation period, the IIP VUE 3.0 help system was accepted almost as...

Four Color Plotters Enhanced for Unattended Operation

FOUR-COLOR GRAPHIC OUTPUT is an element of many applications involving computer or controller-based systems. Three HP programmable plotters provide this capability for different types of systems. Model 9872 is compatible with systems based on the HP Interface Bus, or HP-IB,* and is programmed in a simple graphics language called HP-GL. Model 7221 is compatible with systems based on the RS-232C (CCITT V.24) interface, and is programmed in a binary language. Model 7220 is also compatible with RS-232C (CCITT V.24) systems, but is programmed in HP-CL. These plotters produce high-quality multicolor plots on any paper size up to 285 x 432 mm (11 X 17 in) or ISO A3. Automatic paper advance is useful for repetitive or sequential graphics output from automated production and engineering test systems, and for unattended graphics operations at a central computer site. A third application area is providing multiple copies of presentation-quality graphs for management reports and presentations....

HPUX Operating System Kernel Support for the HP Series Workstations

The new system SP1 (system processing unit) features three new chips an integer processor, a floating-point coprocessor, and a memory and system bus controller. In addition, the Series 700 was developed to provide I O expandability through the Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) bus. For the software project teams, this new hardware functionality raised some basic questions, such as What can the user do with these hardware capabilities and What can we do to take advantage of the hardware features The answer to the lirsl question was fairly obvious because we knew that key users would bp engineers running CAE application programs such as compute-intensive graphics for modeling mechanical engineering designs. We also realized that the Series 700 systems were not intended as specialized systems, but were aimed at a broad spectrum of high-performance workstation applications* and they had to be fast everywhere, without making trade-offs to computer-aided design. Thus,...

By Frank E Hall and James B Byers

The increasing power of the distributed computing environment, as demonstrated by the other articles in this issue, makes X a very timely technology. It has integrating implications for the areas of user interface, graphics, and networking. It also presents new challenges for addressing the emerging distributed computing market.

By William A Buskirk David E Hackleman Stanley T Hall Paula H Kanarek Robert N Low Kenneth E Trueba and Richard R Van

In the summer of 1987 the next generation of Hewlett-Packard's thermal inkjet technology was introduced in the PaintJet Color Graphics Printer, In addition to providing color output, this printer offers improved text print quality at a resolution of 180 dots per inch, almost twice that of the ThInkJet printer. Because of the possibility of paper-induced variations in color, the inks in the PaintJet print-heads were also optimized for use with a specific paper. This ensures colors that are brilliant and consistent.

Object Oriented Architecture

The HP IVl project was successful io blending graphics, windowing, X toolkit, widget, and object-oriented technologies in the internal design of the API, Because most of these technologies were developed separately, it was not always clear how to integrate them. The API solved most of the problems encountered and as a result of this effort a high-level user interface toolkit was created that reduces the complexity of building a sophisticated graphical user interface for an application. 2. K. H. Bronstein, D. J. Sweetser, and W. ft. Yoder. System Design for Compatibility of a High-Performance Graphics Library and the X Window System, Hewlett-Packard Journal, December 19RH. Vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 6-12.