m cal oscillator (LO) mixes with the incoming 4-GHz signal down to a 400- to 1200-MHz first intermediate frequency (i-f), This is in keeping with the spirit of a textbook approach of selecting an i-f about one-tenth of the incoming signal (the "divide-by-10" rule). After some needed amplift-cation, the signal is mixed again down to what is known as baseband (because we're done with conversion), amplified even morer and then detected with either a PLl. or discriminator circuit. Baseband is generally 70 MHz, an industry standard.

So Much For Basics

The key points worth vlDCO

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