Do It Yourself Solar Energy
Any scientist will tell you that free energy17 is impossible. The taw of conservation of energy forbids any device that produces more energy than it consumes. To make matters worse, the laws of thermodynamics insist that every device has loss, so no machine can produce as much energy as it consumes. Some is always radiated away as heat. It's impossible 10 break event If we can believe some disturbing rumors, some free energy researchers have experienced more than criticism and ridicule. Engineer Robert Adams claims that his patent application was denied and his invemion classified under a Military Use,T clause. Not only was his devicc suppressed for over 20 years, but he was harassed and his life threatened While this may be hard to believe, there arc trillions of dollars at stake, and all the political and social power that such incredible wealth represents certainly a motive for those interested in maintaining the status quo. Fig. I. Extracting free energy from ocean waves. Nature...
Inc. dtsirfOutoTs of Soiare* photovoltaic products or tne M (tweet has in iroduced the now Solarex SX series ot semt crystal line photovoltaic panprs, using state-of-the-art technology OSCAR SfialefMe laurwhed onOctober 6 1931 OSCAR 9 s 'our solar panels each coniam 408 high-elfioency 2 cm x 2 cm ceils feach panel produces 27 Waits when fully illuminated. The Solare* system is designed to produce 18 Watts peak power and 8 Watts average power in orbit o Charge the 14-voli ntcad battery
GIANT SOLAR PANELS 44.00 EACH Excellent Prices Solar EquipmentfAccessories. Free Information Send Stamped Envelope, Catalog 3.00. To QUAD ENERGY, P.O. Box 690073, Houston TX 77269. (713)393-0313. BNB715 SOLAR POWERED HAMSi The Sunswitch is a charge controller to protect your batteries from over charge. Power MOSFETs are used, no relays Assembled tuned and tested. Now with Wall Mount Case, 55.00 plus 3.00 shipping. SUNLIGHT ENERGY SYSTEMS, 2225 Mayflower NW, Massillon OH 44647 BNB774
The European Space Agency has confirmed a launch slot on the second ARIANE-5 flight timed for October 1995. The primary payload is the cluster spacecraft. Phase 3D will look like a doughnut of nonuniform thickness, 10.5 feet in diameter and about 2.1 feet tall weighing 880-1100 pounds and will also have two deployable wings carrying extra solar panels. The power budget is about 200 watts. The inside of the hole will be a launch adaptor to carry the main pay-load. I hope to upload a sketch (in GIF format) to UO-14 soon. Because a 10-foot spacecraft is too big for doors, elevators, etc, Phase 3D will probably be made in separate pieces and the blocks finally assembled at the launch site.
Solar Energy Background in Brief The process of producing electricity from sunlight is called Photovoltaics, or simply PV, The phenomenon was first observed in 1839 by French physicist Edmond Becquerel. In 1905, Albert Einstein explained the photoelectric effect and, since the 1950s, PV has gained widespread use. Today, solar generated electricity is used throughout the world for water pumping, refrigeration, communications, lighting, and virtually any use requiring electricity. During the past several years, the thin film PV panel has made low cost solar eiectricity quite common. Chances are you may even use a solar calculator or wear a solar powered watch. Photovoltaics received widespread use and acceptance beginning in the fate '50s, with the advent of the space program. As a lightweight and highly reliable power source, photovoltaics rapidly found a niche in space applications. Of course, this is a very simple explanation of the photovoltaic (PV) effect. Reams of paper have been...
While in the San Francisco Bay Area for a couple of weeks, I plan to equip the carts with 12-volt photovoltaic modules to power a portable computer and packet-radio gear. The computer would be used to write and publish articles about my designs, prepare graphics and technical drawings, simulate and model the physics of these designs to optimize them, keep a diary for an eventual book about the walk, play with cellular automata programs for enjoyment and insights into how natural systems might work. The computer will also maintain and address list of contacts and be the terminal for packet-radio communications via the Microsats (while I am walking in foreign countries.) So, I am looking for a portable computer workstation that can be used in the field, such as an AGILIS System. I welcome help in locating sponsors for this project. Advice and technical assistance are also needed.
Almost three-quarters of a century ago, Einstein explained how electrons are knocked out of solids by sufficiently short electromagnetic radiation. Yet until recently practical applications of this fundamental phenomenon have been limited almost entirely to radiation detectors, photomulti-pllers, and photovoltaic and photoconductive cells. That the escaping electrons contain Important information about the material from which they are ejected has been a recent discovery, dating back scarcely a decade.
Following the lunch break, Dick Jansson, WD4FAB, reported on the satellite frame and the thermal design of the Phase-4 structure. Using extensive overhead slides, he showed how the assembly of the structure proceeded for the Phase-4 model. At this time a model of the folding satellite antennas is being built at Weber State University in Utah. Furthermore WD4FAB explained the design of the antennas, the heat pipes and how the solar panels are mounted to the satellite structure. Much of the expertise and preparatory work for the Phase-4 study can be adopted for use in Phase-3D. WD4FAB Thermal study, solar panels. Define structure constraints.
On July 9th Perry Kline of Amsat gave an interesting presentation before approximately 30 members of the FCC in Washington. That amateurs have been able to accomplish so much with such minimal expenditure is a continuing source of amazement to government officials. The fellows working on the Oscar projects beg, borrow and. . .ahem .just about everything from the solar panels to
Note that this orbit differs from the intended one in two major aspects perigee height and inclination angle. With the perigee so high, A-0-10 spends more time than AMSAT would like in the Van Allen Belt over time, this will probably cause accelerated deterioration of the solar panels, though we have many years of operation before the effects cause any problems. The lower inclination angle (26 degrees instead of 57)
The August and September 1987 issues of CTM Magazine contained a two-part article by Robert Hoover KA6HZF titled Captain Kirk's Lunch Box,,h which was about a totally self-contained, battery-operated, solar-charged portable digipeater. Mr, Hoover's article dealt with a complete package housed in a single Gi ammo box. It included a Yaesu FT-23 2 meter HT, an MFJ-I270 TNC and a single 14 amp-hour motorcycle battery, along with an external solar panel.
The ESM 1 emergency signaling device is a self-contained pocket-portable unit that has a range of up to ten miles in fair weather daytime conditions. The device is solar powered and operates in the noncoherent light band. The emission is of the CW mode. Its dimensions are four by five inches, and about a quarter inch thick. Obviously it is solid state, very solid, with no moving parts of any kind, it must be very state-of-the-art you say No indeed, this device appears to be at least twenty years old, and is probably World War Two surplus. So what is the trick It's very simple it's all done with mirrors. But this is a very special mirror, so let's take a look at how this device works and how we can put it to work for us.
AMSTAT-OSCAR 7 is a small communications satellite designed to operate with small stations in the amateur service on a non-commerciat basis. The spacecraft contains two basic experimental repeater packages, redundant command systems, two experimental telemetry systems, and a store-and-forward message storage unit. The spacecraft is solar powered, weighs 65 pounds, and has a three-year anticipated lifetime. It contains beacons on 29.50, 145.98, 435.10 and 2304,1 MHz.
SOLAR POWERED HA WIS The Sunswitch is a charge controller to protect your batteries iroim over charge. Power MOSFETs are used, no reJaysl Assembled tuned and tested. Now with Wall Mount Case, 55.00 plus 3.00 shipping, SUNLIGHT ENERGY SYSTEMS, 2225 Mayflower NW, Massillon OH 44647. SNB774
Hams and other radio operators can keep their batteries fully charged with Solar Electric s new line of solar battery chargers Measuring onEy a few feet square, the Mamtainer 2 modei is portable enough to bring almost anywhere. The panels witl Keep storage batteries charged on-site, or power the devices directfy during daylight hours. The new generation of solar panels are also more sensitive lo low light levels and more efficjen in high temperature sites. The Maintainer 2 is available for 89 95. For technical details write or call far Electronic. 175 Cascade Court Rohnert Park. CA 94928 800-832-1986 or 707-5861987, Circte Reader Service number 205 for additional information.
A solid fuel rocket motor will be used to raise the perigee after launch into geostationary transfer orbit. Last year's requirement for deployable solar panels has now gone thanks to GaAs solar panels from Italy, which will provide 50-60 watts. This spin-stabilized satellite will be earth-pointing using nitrogen gas for attitude control. Lifetime expected is of the order of 3-5 years. The six-sided body is 35.5 feet in diameter, 34.7 feet high and weighs about 309 pounds before kick motor firing. Upon ejection, the satellite will spin up to 60 rpm before the kick motor is fired in the first few days of orbit, then it will spin down to about one rpm.
Neers had to insure the liquid-fueled kick motor worked properly since two separate burns were planned. To add to the challenge, after deployment from the launcher canister, the satellite spun in the wrong direction and suffered from low power because its solar panels were al a bad angle relative to the sun.
Power to the battery is supplied by a small DC-only gensel. This allows operation of the radios without a generator yammering away day and night. The generator is sized so that 90 + of ihe DC goes to recharge the battery bank, Tom has modified the generator with a cage, set of meters, and a cover for protection when not in use. I suggested he consider adding a couple of solar panels. In southern Nevada
Battery problems continue to plague RS5 and RS7. In spite of this, activity has been very good on both satellites. New stations in the Yukon and Alaska have been on in recent months since the last eciipse period ended in March. The RS5 transponder is excellent. The batteries, however, are completely dead, so it will only operate when the solar panels are illuminated.
If you have worked the satellites on Field Day in recent years, you may have noticed that a lot of good contacts can be made on some of the less-populated, low-earth-orbit satellites like Fuji-OSCAR-20, Fuji-OS-CAR-29 and RS-12 J3. During a typical workweek, contacts are few and far between, but during Field Day the transponders come alive like 20 meters on a weekend. The good news is that the transponders on these satellites will support multiple simultaneous contacts, The had news is that you can't use FM, just low duty-cycle modes like SSB and CW, AMSAT-OSCAR-10 can also be a lot of l un on Field Day if the solar panels are properly illuminated and it is in a good position in the sky for Field Day. Plot some orbits and check it out.
Radiation encountered in orbit can damage integrated circuits and can upset data stored in solid state memories. Amateur satellites now use advanced semiconductors in many critical systems, and designers are becoming increasingly interested in radiation. (AO-10 and FO-12 have both been crippled by radiation damage.) UO-14 and UO-22 have already begun to measure the space radiation environment and its effects on advanced electronics. These measurements have been from the relatively benign environment of a low-altitude, high-inclination orbit. KITSAT-A will be placed into a high-altitude, low-inclination orbit, which has a much worse radiation characteristic. In this orbit, KITSAT-A will measure the total radiation dose and the occurrence of highly energetic cosmic rays. In parallel with this environment data, effects of the radiation on microcomputers, power systems, memories and solar panels will be monitored.
To this end. the Northeast Solar Energy Association organized the second annual American Tour de Sol race. The objectives of the five-day race from Montpelier, Vermont. to Boston, Massachusetts, were to 1. Promote solar energy and clectric vehicles 2. Provide a vision of future transportation and solar energy use and 3, Provide a challenging design problem for engineering students. Most of these vehicles were capable of traveling at mad speeds over 50 mph and over a 50-mile range. The practical solar-powered commuter car is almost here Since these are experimental vehicles bejng pushed to the limit over a 234-mile course, breakdowns can Schools across the nation have been experimenting with solar-powered vehicles. Recent advances in the efficiency of solar cells, electric motors and drag-efficient vehicles have made the practical solar-powered car a near reality Many of these schools need actual road test data to
After a long and fruitless search through my limited library of radio publications, 1 was ready to give up when 1 spotted my Solar Energy Handbook. It contains information on collecting light waves with parabolic reflectors Having read that the properties of high frequency radio waves and light waves are similar, decided to design and build a parabolic reflector based upon the information
Antennas West announces the introduction of its QRV-SOLAR 23 Solar Power Supply designed specifically to provide mains-independent power for remote repeaters, portable or RV-based stations, and home amateur radio installations The heart of the system is an easily-installed unbreakable and bullet-tested solar panel with unique linear current boost-ingcircuitry The QRV SOLAR 23. rated ai 23 Watts, delivers 1.65 Amperes at 14 Volts and in-
The 5349.00 Buftet-l cslsd QRV Solar Power Supply keeps your repeater hi ihe Ait 'round the i-Aack. or powers your l00w HF station (jl) hrfi li Uionrh CGfUn L c ITCU i t speed S chu r e. prolel Is I eel I & & tflcrl buiLenes. Fully tumbled* QU. . portable Ea&ily cJip irdeiJ.
I plan to have a busy year with the QRP column, Next month I will try and do the Field Day special. Look out for columns on solar power, operating lips, antennas, contesting, and more. As I have said in the past, it is your column. Teil me what you woutd like to see, and 111 do my best to get it printed, i welcome photographs, just make sure they have a loi of contrast and are in focus. Black-and whit are ne besi 10 send, bui coEor ones are fine if they meet the above requirements Sorry, f I send them in to be printed, you wili not gel them back. Make copies to send to me
I watched with fascination, during the fourth day of the race, from the starting point at Concord. All of the entries were engineering marvels. However, three of these really attracted my attention. I ioved the name of the car entered by Delta College. . . S-CAR-GO (Solar Car Go), Another enthusiastic entry was from ConVal High School Ed. Note Just down the road from 73 The students from ConVal proved that you don't have to have the backing of a university or college to make it through a grueling race such as this. Their vehicle, 4tSol Survivor, lived up to its name and came in fourth in its category Finally, one of the most unique vehicles was the solar-powered bicycle operated by Team Rosebud. The rider had a solar panel strapped to his back which ran a small electric motor attached to his wheel. Hmtnm. . . Maybe next year I II bring my solar-powered skateboard gg
Jn one of my previous columns t had mention about a new repeater (R0) on top of Taigetos Mountain, and I promised to return to it with more details. The reason is this is the first Greek repeater under solar power and also under remote control Of course this might look like a common situation for countries with a lot of amateur population, but for our country II shall call the event as unique. Now what the hardware contained was a Yaesu receiver and transmitter, an RX-TX systems duplexer, a coiinear heavy-duty antenna with four dipoles, three starved electrolyte batteries, and three photovoltaic panels from B.P. (British Petroleum). The repeater was designed with two power levels (2.0 ana 8 W), and every two hours is giving telemetry with information about its status.
Energy devices involve well-known, even patented, principles. Many of these are fairly simple, and a talented amateur with some basic electrical and mechanical skills can easily build and experiment with them. Amateur radio operators, being an intelligent and curious bunchy are in a perfect position to study these devices, and to validate or refute the free energy claims. Some inventors of free energy devices claim to be able to tap the zero-point energy fluctuations in a different sort of ocean the limitless sea of energy that underlies the universe itself. Fig, 1 shows a method of extracting energy from ocean waves, converting it into electricity- Such a system could just as easily operate a reciprocating pump, or do other useful work. This is a true free energy system which produces far more energy than ii consumes free energy, not created, but extracted from the environment, Is it possible that these free energy devices actually lap into the ultimate source Perhaps. Apparent...
From high lech to soft t-sch is the I heme of this months winning QSL card- Ohios Michael Bryce BflVGE has taMen advantage oi the freezes, given to as by Mother Nature and used them lo power his station- The card depicts a solar panel and a wind generator. Mictiael * iwo sources pf energy So when you hear WBBVGE say he is ust shooi ng the breeze, you better believe it
Attach the battery sense line to the positive battery post on the battery. Do not attach it to any other point. Then, attach the panel sense line to the output of the solar panel, making sure you have connected it on the anode side of the blocking diode, Dl. The blocking diode is used so the panel sense circuit will not be fooled by the voltage output of the batteries. The 10.5 voltage sensor portion of the circuit is not required it's just as an added feature. The charge circuit will work without it, but I use it as a ' day-night1' switch. See Figure 8. Operation of the controller is fairly simple* As long as the panel sense voltage is above 10J volts the circuit is active. If the panel sense voltage falls below 10.5 volts, then RY1 is disabled, thereby preventing any charge voltage to the batteries. When the voltage from the solar panel rises to above 10,5 volts, RY1 is connected between the collector of Q3 and the coil of RY2, which allows any charge voltage from the solar panel to...
Used to power any cxtemai unit, like transceiver, another digipeaterT etc. The PANEL IN jack is the solar panel input to the charge controller. You will see in the template drawing of the box (Figure 6 that I have placed two 5 16 holes near the bottom of the box. These are for the breather tubes com* ing from the batteries. Also, the Charge LED and power switch for the controller arc mounted on the end The basic circuit for the controller uses three sections of an LM-339 voltage comparator IC (see Figure 7), Two sections are used to monitor the HIGH and LOW battery voltage, and the third seciion is used to monitor the voltage output from the solar panel. I found several articles dealing with solar charging in various publications, and by combining features of these articles I came up with my own simplified version. The project can be built on a printed circuit board available from FAR Circuits, 1SN640 Field Court,, Dundee IL 60118 for 8 plus SL50 S& H.
For high-speed applications, an additional reverse bias voltage is applied in series with R to reduce diode capacitance and speed up carrier collection, at the expense of added dark current noise. For wide dynamic range down to the lowest possible noise level, no bias should be applied. The diode then operates in the photovoltaic mode (VD 0). Photographic exposure meters make use of this operating mode. For solar energy conversion, R is chosen to make vi a maximum at a given light level. R,-t-H, 1 kil Solar Energy Conversion R,-t-H, 1 kil Solar Energy Conversion Photovoltaic Operation Photovoltaic Operation
To control any desired peripheral apparatus. Without re-programming, the apparatus can be directly used for plioto-electromagnetic effect and photovoltaic measurements as a function of temperature. Because the apparatus can be quickly re-programmed for other kinds of measurements, it is a flexible and versatile addition to any laboratory where automated measurements are desirable.
The VR-50 is powered by a rechargeable battery which is maintained at full charge by a photovoltaic solar panel on top oi its waterproof floating case. The high-visibility impact-proof case is made of tough plastic wtth scuba-type 0 rings 1 takes up a mere V cubic foot and measures only 14 x T T x 6 with a weight of only 16 pounds. The 8-foot telescoping whip antenna stores inside the case when not in use* An internal antenna-tuner which matches the antenna is buili into the set The VR-50 may be used with a wide range of auxiliary antennas
Elliptical orbit satellites, such as OSCARs 10 and 13 are + ,spin stabilized their anien-nas point toward the center ol the Earth from apogee under ideal conditions When illumi nation of the solar panels is not ideal, the attitude of the satellite is 'squinted*' or off-pointed 1 and communications capability is compromised. At other times, the satellite points away from the Earth to varying degrees due to (he changing angles between our QTH, the satellite, and the attitude of the satellite s spin axis.
The future of satellite communications is here today. Future Communications, located in Colorado Springs, has introduced a flat plate satellite antenna known as PhaseCom. The antenna can be installed in a window, inside a house, on a roof and in some cases, an attic. Because of its possible placement, the PhaseCom antenna is ideal for apartment dwellers. The antenna is approximately five feet square and less than 2 inches thick. It weighs about 20 pounds and resembles a solar panel when mounted. (See photo.)
A note from W5LVA enclosed a clipping about NASA getting ready to test a satellite solar power station (SSPS) in 1978. This will collect energy from the sun and beam it down via microwaves - about 5 kW worth. The idea is that collecting solar energy here on earth is too lossy much of it is dissipated in the atmosphere before it reaches the ground -and clouds turn off the power entirely, as does nightfall. This means a tremendous storage facility of some kind is needed. A satellite would get solar energy 24 hours a day and energies on the order of 10.000 megawatts are being considered.
It is printed directly from a dot matrix printer. Instead of opening like a book or magazine, the manual opens end to end, much like the old Thunder Chief ' yellow tablets of my school days. The pages of the manual are gummed together at the top. I worry that the pages wilt fall out under constant use. Uniike the manual that came with your tribander, there is so much information for the new user of solar power, I can envision many a newcomer reading and re-reading the manual. My manual had several typos, and on several pages, some of the print was unreadable. Perhaps the ribbon in the printer got out of its guide when the manual was printing- All and all however, the manual is quite complete. In fact, I talked with Jim Stevens, of Antennas West, about changing the layout of the manual so it would open like a magazine. I also suggested adding three hole punch-outs to each page. Since my entire station operates from solar power, I isolated some of my...
In a country of inaccessible terrain such as Papua New Guinea has to offer, commit stations are ot v.iai importance As fax as teificommumcai ons are concerned this country has one ot the most modem microwave systems wi(n some of the transmitters powered by solar energy We can dial STD and tSD. Tins Is a country of paradoxes, where St one-Age and moder n technology coexisi
After a two-month silence, AQ-10 has been released for guarded operation, On May 1st, spacecraft command stations around the world concluded that the batteries needed a few more weeks to recover from the period of low illumination of the solar panels. The IHU (Internal Housekeeping Unit) was successfully reset even though the on-board memory has been heavily damaged by radiation. Looking back on the attitude predictions presented in April, late June (Field Dayf) and early July show a period of 100 percent solar-panel illumination if all goes well, activity on A0-10 should be
Solar power revisited Seeing three Ilea market spaces fillet w ith solar modules and controllers. I noted a great interest in large high-power modules this year. In the years past, most of Lhe QRP o iera-tors went for the 5 and 10 waitSolarcx Lites. These make taking solar power and our favorite QRP rig into the field lois of fun. This year, most of the guys y minted larger, more pow er-fill modules for use at home, I also wanted a higher power module to increase m energy production. so I have installed two Astro power 120 watt modules on a pole mount These modules will be used to test new control circuits. When not used for testing, their output will be redirected to the main storage battery- I plan on adding four more 1 20 watt Astro modules during the summer of 97. Also, two more 64 watt Soiarex MSX-64 modules will be added to the mam ami) before you read this This w ill boost the peak current going into the storage batteries io over 73 amps at 7 olts, Although it isn't yet carved...
Conceived, coordinated, and edited by Richard H. Arland K7YHAh the book's eight chapters were written by some well-known QRPers. including 73s own Mike Bryce WB8VGE. Chapters cover QRP DXing, contesting, satellites, antennas, solar power, micro- and milli-watting, and DXpedition-
Photovoltaic generators are finding an ever larger place in the communications industry as the worldwide need for information expands. ARCO Solar photovoltaic systems have a number of outstanding advantages in powering remote communications equipment Photovoltaic Products
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